Author Topic: History of Europe, from Mesopotamia - Christian Crusades.  (Read 6216 times)

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Offline Willy

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History of the World.

   Mesopotamia is believed to be the location of the Garden of Eden. Mesopotamia was located in Iraq today.
   Mesopotamia was where the first civilization appeared when many tribes came together and formed the Sumerian Empire. They believed in many anthropomorphic gods (meaning gods with human traits). Their system of government consists of 1 leader for each town which were the representatives of the gods.   
   The Sumerian empire was defeated by Sargon the great for Akkad. Sargon then created the Dynasty of Akkad which lasted 56 years and fell apart after Sargon's death. His death has been dated around 2300 B.C.
   Then came the Babylonians in 3000 B.C. When Hammurabi came the leader of the Babylonians. He made Hammurabi code of laws (Around 1750 B.C) for his people. These laws were used in most civilizations after wards. After Hammurabi died in 1750 B.C the Babylonian Empire began to fall.
   In 1250 B.C. A group of tribes called the Assyrians became the most powerful. They showed mo mercy enemies. Which lead to a lot of torture and be-headings. Their name Assyrian became associated with the word “Terror” 
   However another group of peoples called the Chaldeas teamed up with Persians to defeat the Assyrians in 612 B.C. Then was the creation of the Chaldean Empire. You may know Nebuchadnezzar from the Bible. Well he was the king of the Chaldean Empire in 604 B.C – 562 B.C. 597 B.C was when he launched an attack on Jerusalem.
   The Chaldean Empire are historically associated and are descendents  of the Babylonians.
   The Persian Empire did take all of Mesopotamia around 400 B.C.

   Now I will move on the the Greek history then onto the Roman history.
Greek History
      At about 2700 B.C the Minoan civilization appeared on an island on the Aegean sea called Crete. They were a great civilization and they were feared by many other like the Mycenaean civilization. But when the Minoan civilization collapsed in 1750 B.C the Mycenaean civilization were the most feared.
   The Mycenaean civilization was the people who fought for Troy (You know the wooden horse and stuff). The Battle of Troy was written by Homer in 750 B.C.
    The Mycenaean civilization was soon know as the Athenians or Greeks, Athens was the their capital. There were many city-states and many Greek god. (I am not going to get into.)
   Below the Athenians was SPAAAAARTA!. They were a very aggressive civilization. For example Children were taken from home at the age of 7 and were put into military camps. They were taught that cry was weakness and they were beaten for crying. To test a kids strength they would be brought to an alter of a Spartan god and were whipped and they couldn't cry. They were whipped until the alter was completely covered with blood.
   In SPAAAAARTA! There was no drama, culture, music, or art aloud. People were not to leave Sparta. They were afraid that outsiders like Athens would give people bad ideas.

   Soon the Peloponnesian League was formed. It was made up of all civilization along the  Aegean sea like SPAAAAARTA!, Athens, and many others.

   The Persian Wars. After the king of Persia, Cyrus the great, lead his armies and created the biggest empire the world has ever seen.
   After Cyrus died is a battle, his son Darius lead his armies and attacked the Peloponnesian League.
   Athens readied their man to help the other parts of Greece ( Peloponnesian League). When Sparta took one look at the size of Persian empire and said, we can't beat them. And so Sparta stayed out of it.
   After many towns were sacked and burned by the Persians. The king Darius lead his men to attack Athens by landing at the town of Marathon. Then move foot soldiers downward to Athens when he would take the horse men by ship around to Athens. But his army at marathon was slaughtered by the Athenian army sent to protect Marathon. Then when Darius reached Athens to see the Athenian army there waiting for him. He was forced to turn back.
   Many years later. The new king of Persia, Xerxes. Is plans were simple, straight forward revenge for what happened at Marathon. He gathered 200 000 men and landed on the shores of Thermopylae. There was the Athenian army and 4000 Sparta worriers including King Leonidea's 300 body guards waiting. But a farmer turned against the Greek armies and showed the Persian armies a mountain path around Thermopylae where 1000 Spartan worriers died fighting them.
   The rest of Xerxes' armies was lost when Xerxes feet was slaughtered. Xerxes lost and returned home to Persia.
   Note: (Xerxes did get marry to a woman named Ester known in the bible.)
   Note: (Both sets of war happened over 20 years.

    The Peloponnesian War. These wars happened from 431 – 404 B.C. This war was known as Greece's suicide attempt. Where Athens and SPAAAAARTA! Fought each other.
   Athens was much stronger the SPAAAAARTA! At this time. But the great king Pericles [He was known to be one of the greatest kings of Greece], He did not see a plague that whip through Athens in the year 430 B.C. In two years 1/3 of Athens population was died. Even the great king Pericles died.
   Because of the plague SPAAAAARTA! And Athens were evenly matched. In the end of the war the winner was SPAAAAARTA!.

   After the Peloponnesian War there was still some small battles here and there. So SPAAAAARTA! Teamed up with Persia to help control Greece.
   While SPAAAAARTA! And Persia were fighting rebellions. A man named Phillip of Macedonia saw an opportunity to take all of Greece. So he and his man made a plan to take all of Greece.
   Phillip and his men attacked in 359 They had taken most of Greece by 336 B.C. But Phillip was assassinated. Then his son took command. His son's name was Alexander. Known today as one of the greatest commanders in human history. His is Alexander the Great!

   Alexander the Great took the rest of Greece. Then decided to go after Greece's greatest enemy, Persia. So Alexander when with his men into Persia. In 334 B.C he crossed the Hellespont, where Xerxes had set sail with his army almost a century ago.
   The Persian King Darius II. Was known for being a cowered. Darius II fought at two major battle at Issus in 333 B.C and Gaugamela in 331 B.C. Darius II fled from both battles. At each of these battles Darius' armies were almost 2x bigger the Alexander's and yet Darius still lost each battle.
Darius II was soon killed by his own Generals. At the Persian capital Alexander burns the great palace of the Kings.
   After taking Persia Alexander headed for India where he fought some of the hardest battle in his career. Alexander's opponent was the Indian king Porus. Porus' army was several time larger then Alexander's army. Although Alexander attacked Porus from an unaccepted corner. So Alexander won and took India.
   After taking India. Alexander wanted to take more. But his men wanted to go home and rule. So Alexander started home. But before Alexander could reach home he got sick and died in 323 B.C.
   The Greek army was split up into three different regions with one general in charge. This was said to be the end of Greece.   
       The first was lead by Ptolemy is consists of mainly Egypt. He was the nice guy a good leader.
   The Second was lead by Seleucis. He wanted everyone to worship the Greek gods, even the Hebrews which costed a rebellion in Israel.
   The Third was lead by Antigonus. He was known as “the one eyed” because he had lost an eye in battle.

Roman History     
   Around 2000 B.C a group of tribes settled on the Tiber River  which soon formed into a  city-state called Rome. Around 600 B.C the Etruscans arrived and over time had complete control of Italy.
   In 500 B.C Romans over throw the Etruscans. By 290 B.C Rome controlled most of Italy.
   Romans created a system of government known to as a republic which the USA is a republic and uses a similar system of government.
   Note: (Roman basically went throw 3 different expansions)
    First  expansion
   The First expansion of Rome was political expansion. But then came the Gauls from France. The Gauls came in and easy took Etruscan cities that were badly damaged when Rome took them. The Gauls did extreme damage to Rome. Soon Roman officials came to the Gauls and told that if they leave Rome will pay them 1000 pounds of gold. So the Gauls left and Rome paid them.
   After the Gauls left Romans began to rebuild and while other city-states were rebuilding as well Rome attacked them and expanded a little. Most city-states made deals with Rome and soon there was an alliance in central Italy. This made Rome the dominant power in Italy.
   Second  expansion
   The second expansion happened after Rome fully recovered from the Gauls, and they started to take more of Italy.
   In the very south of Italy Rome met Greek cities that were developed in an area called Tarentum. When Rome attacked them. Some men went back to Athens and asked the king of Athens to help. The king of Athens at this time was Pyrrhus. Pyrrhus sent 250 000 men to help. They met up with the Romans in one huge battle. Pyrrhus' men won but lost so many men that it wasn't really a win. (This is where the saying Pyrrhic win comes from. Pyrrhic win means a victory with many loses.)
   After Rome took over all of Italy They turned to the Charthage Empire. These wars were known as the Punic Wars. There was three main Punic Wars.

   The First Punic War was 264 B.C – 241 B.C. Rome fought Charthage in Sicily, Africa. There was great cost to both empires but after 20 years Rome took the island of Sicily and forced the Charthage people there to pay huge taxes.

   Note: (The Second Punic Wars are the BEST!!!!)
   The Second Punic wars: In Spain what was left of the Charthage Empire. One of the greatest generals in human history was given an army of Charthage's greatest soldiers. The general's name was Hannibal. He had only one mission, it was to take over Rome.
   Hannibal's plan was crazy. He decided that the best way to get Rome was to head up throught the Alps and down into the boot (Italy is shaped as a boot).
   Hannibal left with 35 000 – 40 000 troops and 37 elephants. You maybe wondering why bring elephant? Well Romans have never seen an elephant so Romans were very afraid of them imagine something that huge run towards you, you would be scared to.
    After Hannibal past through the Alps in the dead of winter! He had 26 000 men left and 1 elephant. Over the next 2 years he fought in 4 great battles and won all of them.
   In 216 B.C at the Cannae in south Italy 50 000 Roman men were killed out of an army of
86 000 men.
   But after those four battles Rome was too weak to stop Hannibal and Hannibal was too weak to take Rome itself. After 14 years! Of waiting the Romans started to attack again and drove Hannibal out of Italy!. The last battle took place at Zama in north Africa where the great Roman general Scipio fought with Hannibal for one last time. Hannibal had a great plan all work out. But it failed and Hannibal's army was destroyed. For one final move Hannibal took his own life.       
   Rome learned something when defeating with Hannibal. They learned that they have the power to rule the entire world.

     Third  expansion           
   At this time Rome had taken most of Spain, all of Italy, North Africa, and had part of Greece under control, But when a Roman official was treated badly in Corinth. In response Rome attack in 146 B.C and Corinth was leveled. Rome then took the rest of Greece and carried on with their lives.

   From Republic to Empire   
   What happened was a few military leaders were given to much control and stayed in office too long and Rome started to fall into a dictatorship.
   Some of the Military leaders were Gaius Marius. He was a very good general and defeated many barbarian tribes. He also reformed the Roman army setup.
   Sulla was a god soldier who served with Marius but when Marius named himself in charge of Sulla's city-States. Sulla went to Rome with an army. Marius fled to Africa. And Sulla took camand of Rome.
   Sulla was soon called to Greece to stop a rebellion and Marius took his chase and retook Rome. He also killed all supporters of Sulla.
   But in 81 B.C Sulla was appointed dictator by the senate and his rain of terror began, by killing all people he believed to have supported Marius. Sulla did not stop there he also killed many more.

   Pompey and Crassus were both Lieutenants under Sulla. Pompey was sent to defeat a man named Lepidus in Spain, he was rebelling against Sulla's reforms to the government.
   While Crassus was put in charge of defeating a gladiator named Spartacus. Spartacus organized an army of 70 000 runaway slaves and had overrun all of central Italy. But when Crassus had almost defeated Spartacus Pompey showed up and just finished Spartacus off. This started tension between Pompey and Crassus. After the fall of Spartacus Pompey went out to destroy the pirates.
   From 100-44 B.C a man named Julius Caesar lived.
   Julius was captured by pirates when growing up. Julius was commanding to the pirates he would yell at them to be quite while he was sleeping. Julius would joy their games and other activities. Soon the Pirates asked for money if the Roman government want him back, mainly because Julius was part of a wealthy family.
   Julius got money from many powerful people, and get stuck in so much debt that the people that  he borrowed money from would do anything to get their money even give Julius an army in order get their money back. Julius used this to gain power in the government and he asked Crassus to pay off most of his debt. Crassus did.
   Soon Julius Ceasar, Pompey,  and Crassus teamed up a and started the first Triumvirate (ruled by three). Pompey married Julius's daughter Julia to seal the deal.
   Julius was then put in command of the territory in France that Rome had command of. Julius then took command of army and started the Gallic Wars with the Gauls. Julius did capture all of France became very rich. He even invaded England.

   Soon Crassus died in battle in Germany. And Julia dead from a sickness in Rome as well. Then the deal was off either Pompey or Julius who could have the Empire.
   Julius brought him well tried army back to Rome to face Pompey. But Pompey fled to Greece because he had much support there. Pompey then gathered an army. Julius and his army went out into Greece to find Pompey as well. The two armies met and Julius' army won the battle. Pompey then fled to Egypt where he was betrayed and be-headed. The head of Pompey the Great was then brought to  Julius.
   Julius went back to Rome and became dictator of Rome. He was a really good leader he did many things for Rome. He added a month to the calender. He did a lot to help the poor get out of debt. He also lowered the heavy taxation on the people.
   The Senate was afraid of Julius mainly because they thought that he was going to name himself king, the the senate would lose any power they had left. So they ran a test. They hired a man to place a crown on Julius' head at his next party. When the man did this Julius took off the crown and put aside. But the Senate was told that Julius seem to have liked being crowned. So the senate at the next meeting took turns stabbing Julius with a knife in 44 B.C.

   After Julius was assassinated a civil war broke out, When Cleopatra and her lover Antony wanted to be the new dictators, they had to defeat Octavian. But Octavian won the battle, and Cleopatra and Antony killed themselves. Octavian then became the new dictator in 63 B.C.
   Octavian also changed his name to Augustus and took on the title Caesar. He became Caesar Augustus The Great

   Augustus' government was then called Pax Romana. He also managed to make the senate think that he didn't want to be king but Augustus power kept growing. He lowered the power of the army which made the Senate like him. He made more changes to the taxation. He started many building projects. Augustus was one of the empire that was not assassinated. He is also known as the best emperors Rome ever had.

     Emperors Of Roman History           
   After Augustus the new dictator was Tiberius from 14 A.D to 37 A.D. He was a general and lead troops into parts of Germany. He also was known to be very boring. He died of natural causes in 37 A.D

   Next in line was Caligula from 37 A.D – 41 A.D, he started out a good emperor, lowered taxes. But then he started to go crazy. I think the Senate noticed this when he assigned his horse to the senate, he was later assassinated.   

   From 41 – 54 A.D the emperor was Claudius. He did have a disability. But he was a deasent emperor, he started a few building projects. But he was assassinated by his wife. His wife killed him so her son could be emperor and because her son was very young she could tell him what to do, that way she had power as well.

   From 54 – 68 A.D the emperor of Rome was Nero. He focused most of his attention on diplomacy like trade and improving culture of the Roman Empire. He ordered the building of theaters and promoted games. But Nero did kill many people including his mother. Most people believe that Nero fiddled while Rome burned, when that didn't really happen. There was a fire but there is evidence that Nero did try to stop the fire, but in the end the city of Rome burned to the ground.
   Even though Nero's mother was bossy but she did restrain Nero's negative impulses. So when Nero ordered his mothers death he only got worse, instead of running the empire he spent time playing and writing poetry.
   After the fire in 68 A.D. Nero killed himself

   After Nero's death a civil war broke out for power. In the end Vespasian became emperor of Rome. He ordered the creation of the Colosseum in Rome. He ruled from 69– 76 A.D.

   From 79 – 81 A.D the emperor was Titus. He built the Arch of Titus in Rome. While he was emperor, Mount Vesuvius erupted, a fire broke out in Rome, but the fire was not as bad as the one in 64 A.D.
   After Titus came Domitian from 81 – 96 A.D. He is the least popular of the emperors, he hated the senate, he ordered the people to call him “Savior and Lord”. The was heavy Christian persecuted.
He was assassinated in 96 A.D

   From 96 – 117 A.D Trajan was the emperor of Rome, he known to be on of the good emperors. He expanded Rome and built the Trajan's Column in Rome. He died in battle in 117 A.D.

   Hadrian was emperor in 117-138 A.D. He was not very offensive more defensive. He built the Hadrian wall in North England. He spent most of his time traveling Rome.

   After Hadrian came Antoninus from 138 – 161 A.D. He was Gaul and he was a senator.  He launched a major celebration of Rome's 900th birthday. There were some rebellions in his time.

   Marcus Aurelius was emperor from 161 – 180 A.D. He expanded the Empire father into England. He also wanted to return Rome to a republic but never gt the chance. A plague did start in the armies in 166 A.D and swept across Rome killing 25% of the population.

   After Marcus Aurelius came his son Commodus from 180 – 192 A.D. Commodus spent most of his time at games. He spent 150 days at games instead of ruling the Empire. It is said that Commodus was mentally unstable. Commodus died when he was strangled to death by a wrestler in 192 A.D. After his death the senate tried to erase all history linked to Commodus. :)

   After Commodus died an other civil war broke out for power and Septimius Severus in 193 A.D and died 211 A.D. Severus was big on the idea of military rule so he increased power of military people mainly because he was also military. When he died his son Caracalla became emperor. 

     Caracalla ruled from 211 – 217 A.D. To become emperor he kill his brother. He also killed many others, he was much into military. He thought that he was the next Alexander, well no he wasn't. He was murdered in 217 A.D.

   Then began the crisis of the third century when Rome had 50 different emperors in only 50 years! This is when barbarians noticed Rome's weakness was now so they began to attack Rome.
Also in this time another plague went through Rome killing about 5000 people per day. Rome is not doing very well at this point.

    In 285 A.D Diocletian became Emperor until 305 A.D. He put an end to the crisis of the third century. He tried to change the system of government a little like: People had to call him “Lord and god” and he would really sit on a throne! Christians were heavily persecuted it was the worst in all of Rome history. Diocletian was a good emperor but one of the only things that really tainted his greatness was the 3000 – 3500 Christians that were killed.

   After Diocletian retired at the age of 65. Constantine the great became emperor after beating six other guys to the throne in 312 A.D. One of Constantine's greatest legacies was his sudden conversion the Christianity. Constantine also split the Roman empire in two the west and its capital and the east where Constantine built a new capital in Byzantium in named it Constantinople (When the Muslims sacked it in the 15th century they renamed it to Istanbul, which it is today)

   In 410 A.D Rome is sacked by the visigoths this was the end of the western part of Rome. Although the Eastern part was still alive and was called the Byzantium Empire.

   What caused Rome to fall? Historians to this day still debt it. Some think that is was because Roman government did not have enough money to pay the soldiers to defend Rome. And the Plagues from 25 – 270 A.D killed off almost ¼ of Europe so there was less people to pay taxes.
   The fall of Rome wasn't just the barbarians there are some long lasting causes as well.

Creation of the Holy Roman Empire      
   After the fall of Rome the church began to show the barbarians the teachings of Jesus and the Barbarians did convert to Christianity.

   Clovis in 511 A.D created the Merovingian dynasty. While Clovis was in power he became Christian. He then made Christianity the religion of the region.
   After Clovis his son divided the empire into 4. The new kings constantly quarreling and the empire disintegrated under there reign. Historian call Clovis' sons “the do-nothing kings” :)
   over the next 200 years successful rulers turned more and more of their power to officials called the “Mayors of the Palace”. In some chases the mayor would become (in reality) more powerful then the king himself.

   Charles Martel he ruled from 714 - 741 A.D. He is the reason were not all Muslims. When Muslims were attacking areas of Gaul Martel was able to resist Muslim control. Which made him a hero to Christians even today.

   Charlemagne the great. Was a descendent of Martel. Charlemagne was able to create a huge Empire made of western Europe and parts of eastern Europe. It was known as the Holy Roman Empire, because it was a Christian Empire so it was holy, Roman because of the Roman Catholic Church.

Christian Crusades   
   Under Charlemagne in the 10th century a messenger came to Charlemagne from the Byzantium Empire asking for help fighting off the Muslim invaders.
   Charlemagne and the church looked over the “Just War” document writing by St. Augustine. To make sure that sending men to help would agree with the “Just War” thing.
   Everything checked out so, to get men to join the church said that if you were to go on a crusade you could get all of your sins forgiven or have some one else' sins forgiven. The Pope also told people to go. 
   In 1099 A.D Christians took Jerusalem. But in 1187 Muslims retook Jerusalem.

   After Charlemagne died his Empire was split into three kingdoms which formed in the kingdoms of France, England and this lead to Kings, and Queens and the usual medieval times.

   I will end there.

   Why would I do this? I was studying for my history exam when I found the history discussion, I thought, Hey I could write out the entire story of what we learned in history just not as detailed to help me study. The only this is that I did not include what I learned on Egyptian history if you want I can make a new discussion on that stuff.

   My favorite part of history, his to be the Marathon guy (I didn't mention him). He was a messenger sent to run from Marathon to Athens to report the victory, He ran the entire way, when he get to the people in charge he yelled “Victory” then dropped dead of exhaustion.
   I just really like that its funny, well not the part that he died but ya.

   If you want to see how crazy Nero was look at this video, It takes place while a rebellion is causing problems for Rome, Then the Senate plotting against Nero with Nero personal guards.

-Willy thanks For reading     
Faith is being sure of what we hope for and certain of what we do not see

Offline Okapidragon

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Re: History of Europe, from Mesopotamia - Christian Crusades.
« Reply #1 on: Jan 25, 2012, 08:28 am »
Is posting historical essays in this section, like, a thing? Because I'll totally do it on the offchance of producing at least SOME activity or discussion.

Also, not to sound like an arse, but you ought to proofread that a bit sometime. It's mostly understandable, but the syntax is pretty off about half the time.
This was a triumph.

Offline Willy

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Re: History of Europe, from Mesopotamia - Christian Crusades.
« Reply #2 on: Jan 28, 2012, 01:54 am »
Sorry, I Have never been very good at writing :) 
Faith is being sure of what we hope for and certain of what we do not see